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The theological doctrine of 16th-century French Protestant reformer John Calvin. It is most often associated with predestination, the belief that each individual’s eternal fate — salvation or damnation — is predetermined, but many contemporary Calvinists have backed away from that. Calvinism emphasizes the sovereignty and holiness of God, the pervasiveness of sin, the powerful grace of Christ and the authority of Scripture. The Presbyterian Church (USA) and Congregationalist churches trace their roots to Calvinism.

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